Azerbaijan celebrates 100th Anniversary of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic
Republic Day honours the date on which the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was founded on 28 May 1918 as the first secular democratic state in the Muslim East. The founder, first and only president of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic is Mammad Amin Rasulzadeh. Since 1990, 28 May - Republic Day is celebrated as a national holiday.
History of Republic Day
The Russian Empire was overthrown by the short-lived February Revolution in 1917. The national movement of people who were trampled by the tyranny existed in the country started. On May 28, 1918 the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan (1918-1920) - the first secular democratic state in the Muslim East was proclaimed. The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, founded by Mammad Amin Rasulzadeh, was the first parliamentary republic and the first democratic, legal and secular state in the Turkish and Islamic world.
Among the important accomplishments of the ADR was the extension of suffrage to women, making Azerbaijan one of the first countries in the world, and the very first majority-Muslim nation, to grant women equal political rights with men. The first state, which officially recognized the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan was the Ottoman Empire. That historic event took place on June 4, 1918. On November 9, 1918 on the basis of the proposal by Mammad Amin Rasulzadeh the three-color flag of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan was accepted.
Until then the flag of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan was red. The Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan was able to operate in a tense and complicated socio-political situation for only 23 months. The Soviet Union invaded Azerbaijan on 28 April 1920. Though the idea of independence was not defeated, and in 1991, after the collapse of the Soviet Empire, Azerbaijan again declared its independence.
Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence of Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycanın İstiqlal Bəyannaməsi) is the declaration of independence of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic from the Russian Empire. Azerbaijan was proclaimed independent in Tiflis on 28 May 1918.
The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was founded by the Azerbaijani National Council in Tiflis on May 28, 1918 after the collapse of the Russian Empire that began with the Russian Revolution of 1917. The Muslim representation in the defunct Transcaucasian Seim had constituted itself into the Azerbaijani National Council, and on May 28, 1918 proclaimed that a new nation was born. So far only a geographical reference, Azerbaijan now became the name of a state, and some 2 million people, called variously Tatars, Transcaucasian Muslims and Caucasian Turks, officially became Azerbaijanis.
1 year after the founding of the ADR, a military parade on the site of the Azerbaijan Carpet Museum took place. In honor of this day the station of the Baku underground is named. Initially, it was called "April 28", since on April 28, 1920, Soviet power was established in Azerbaijan, and the ADR ceased to exist. However, after the Republic gained independence for the second time, the name, reminiscent of the Soviet past, was replaced by "May 28". It was enough to rename only letters, the numbers remained the same.
In honor of this day the street in Baku is named: Istiglaliyyat (Independence) street.
On the wall of the hall of the former palace of the governor in the Caucasus in Tbilisi, where the republic was proclaimed, a memorial plaque with an inscription in Azerbaijani, Georgian and English languages was installed.
In Baku, on the Istiglaliyyat (Independence) street, a stele with the text of the Declaration of Independence (in Arabic and Latin) was installed. In 2008, a postage stamp was issued in connection with the 90th anniversary of the Republic.
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